# New Discoveries in Astronomical Physics, Regeneration of Stars & BlackHoles

The following is a Press Release from Dr. Firman Sugiharto of Jakarta, Indonesia.

NOTE: We also have a FILE “**Dissertation of New AstroPhysics**” that goes with the Press Release which we will be happy to share with any reader who contacts me at: [email protected].

Dr. Sugiharto states this “Press Release is a simplification of my “Dissertation “**Dissertation of New AstroPhysics**” (reducing the science narrative, reducing the derivation of formulas and reducing the calculation of basic physics parameters) to make it easier for general readers or viewers to understand.”

## Mechanisms Of Gravitational Surges And Collapses In Black Holes Ball And The Formation Of New Stars, The Role Of Higgs Boson Elementary Particles In Star Regeneration In Galaxies, Analysis With Cfm Constant

**(**Based on a Dissertation from Dr. Firman Sugiharto)

### Presented by :

**Dr. Firman Sugiharto**

**Indonesia**

Abstract:

Opening the mysteries of nature is one of the goals of human learning and continuing to

learn. The mechanism of gravitational surges and collapses in black holes ball and the

formation of new stars, the role of the elementary particle Higgs boson in the regeneration of

stars in galaxies, analysis with the Cfm constant. It is part of the human learning process to

continue to understand the secrets of nature. It takes the cooperation of many people to

unlock the secrets of Nature

**A. Higgs Boson Elementary Particle Theory****Higgs Boson**

The Higgs boson, sometimes called the Higgs particle, is an elementary particle in the

Standard Model of particle physics produced by quantum excitation of the Higgs field, a field

in theoretical particle physics. In the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a massive scalar

boson with zero spin, even (positive) parity, no electric charge, and no color charge that

couples to (interacts with) mass. It is also very unstable, decaying into other particles as soon

as it is formed

Everything is made of particles. But when the universe began, no particles had mass; they all

travel at the speed of light. Stars, planets and life can only arise because particles derive their

mass from the fundamental field associated with the Higgs boson. The existence of this mass-

giving field was confirmed in 2012, when the Higgs boson particle was discovered at CERN.

Higgs field to obtain mass values for the Higgs boson, W boson, Tau lepton, proton and

electron

We get the following values:

EH = 9,638732018E-32 kg m2 /C [m-2s-4] Higgs field

MH = 2,235682861E-25 kg [m1s-6] = 125,412616 GeV/c2 Higgs boson mass

MW = 1,433217602E-25 kg [m1s-6] = 80,397576348 GeV/c2 Mass of the W boson

M = 3,168372989E-27 kg [m1s-6] = 1777,3269 MeV/c2 Tau lepton mass

mp = 1,672621898E-27 kg [m1s-6] = 938,27211MeV/c2 Rest Mass of proton

me = 9,109383558E-31 kg [m1s-6] = 0,51099894 MeV/c2 Rest Mass of electrons**Basic Parameters of the Universe**

c = 2,997924580E+08 m/s [m1 s-1] the speed of light in a vacuum

vo = (e/(c2 ))1/2 = 1,562974266E-17m/s[m1s-1] zero point speed

c,e = 2rc,e = 2,426310237E-12 m Compton electron wavelength

rc,e = 3,861592676E-13 m [m1s0] reduction of the Compton wavelength of electrons

rs,e = 2G me/c2= 1,352753926E-57 m [m1s0 ] Schwarzschild electron radius

ro = 22me/vo2= 22me/(e(c2)) = 3,971421552E-01m [m1s0] zero point radius

c,p = 1,321409854E-15 m Compton proton wavelength

c, = 1,361270434E-27 m Compton photon wavelength

rc, =(22kB)-1=2,166529185E-26m[m1s0] reduced Compton wavelength of the photon

**Physical Constants Derived from Fundamental Parameters**

EH = kB rH = 9,638732018E-32 kg m2 /C [m-2s-4] Higgs field

kB = 1,379510242E-23 J/K [m-3s-4] Boltzmann’s constant

rH = 6,987068108E-9 m Radius of Medan Higgs

MH = 2,235682861E-25 kg Higgs boson mass (125,412616305 GeV/c2 )

(Gme)1/4 = 2,580767528E-11 m

MW = EHc2(Gme)1/4 = 1,433217602E-25 kg, W boson Mass (80,397576348 MeV/c2 )

M = 6,644657336E-27 kg (CODATA) Alpha particle mass (Helium nucleus)

M = 3,168372989E-27 kg, Tau lepton Mass (1777,3269 MeV/c2 )

dVe = e/c2 = 1,782661907e-36 m3 volume element (c,e)3/8

c,H = 9,884318787E-18 m Compton wavelength of the Higgs boson

o = 1,256637061E-06 [m-7s0 ] Free space permeability

o = 8,854187817E-12 [m5s2 ] Free Space Permittivity

h = 6,626070040E-34 J s [m3 s-7] Planck constant

G = 6,673308839E-11 C/(kg m2 ) [m2s4 ] Reverse Gravitational Field

2 = 5,325135448E-05 C/(kg m2 ) [m2s4 ] Reverse Electric Field

= 7,297352566E-03 [m1s2 ] Fine Structure Constant

e = 1,602176621E-19 [m5s-2] Base Load

me = 9,109383558E-31 kg Rest Mass of Electrons

mp = 1,672621898E-27 kg Proton Rest Mass

m = 1,623644356E-69 Photon/graviton Rest Mass

B = 9,274009995E-24 Boson Permeability

e = 9,284764521E-24 Electron Permeability

Fem = EH e = 1,544295109E-50 kg m2

Fem,H = MH c,e c,p = 7,167935174E-52 kg m2

ℓP = 1,616134996E-35 m**B. Calculation and Analysis of Black Hole Balls and New Stars using Cfm(Firman Constant)**

**Formulation for calculating the Black Hole Balls Compression Formula and the**

Development of New Stars using the Formula of “Firman Constant” = Cfm

Development of New Stars using the Formula of “Firman Constant” = Cfm

The change in star material into black hole ball material is the change in atomic material

into the form of sub-atomic particles (in this case the elementary Higgs boson particles).

This change is caused by:

- Extra High Pressure in the core of a star: 2,7068 x1011 kgf/cm2
- The finished of hydrogen fusion reactions in the core of stars is due to the exhaustion of

hydrogen atoms that can carry out nuclear fusion reactions,

1H2 + 1H2 → 1H3 + 1H1 + 4 MeV

1H2 + 1H2 → 2He3 + 0n1 + 3,3 MeV

1H3 +1 H3 → 2He4 + 0n1 + 17,6 MeV

So that it encourages hydrogen atoms and helium atoms resulting from fusion to decay into

sub atomic elementary particles - Very High Temperature in the Star’s Core: (1,5×107)0 C (fifteen million degrees Celsius)

By decaying atoms into elementary particles, there is a change in dimensions from atoms

to elementary particles

rh = Bohr atomic radius = 5,3 x 10-11 m

transformed into

rB = Boson Radius = 2,2 × 10−18 m

However, this change is not linear, because there is an electromagnetic force when it

becomes an atom and an electromagnetic force from boson particles, an electromagnetic

force from the mass of the Higgs boson, namely

Fem = gaya elektromagnetik atom = 1,544295109E-50 kg m2

Fem,H = gaya elektromagnetik massa higgs boson =7,167935174E-52 kg m2

This electromagnetic force is what holds the dimensions of new Elementary Particles,

So the change in dimensions from Atoms to Elementary Particles in one dimension is:

The ratio of electromagnetic force times the ratio of radius

= rB/rh x Fem / Fem,H = Cfm

= (2,2 × 10−18 m) / (5,3 x 10-11 m) x 1,544295109E-50 kg m2 /7,167935174E-52 kg m2

= 0,0894 x 10-5

= 8,94 x 10-7

Change of Atomic Matter into Elementary Matter Higgs Boson = 8,94 x 10-7

This value is a Firman Constant = Cfm = rB/rh x Fem / Fem,H

Cfm = 8,94 x 10-7

The Firman Constant is used to calculate the volume of Dead stars changing to the volume

of Black Hole Balls, and to calculate the volume of New Stars**1**)**The Firman formula**for calculating the volume compression of a dead star into a s black

hole ball is:

Vbh= (rB/rh x Fem / Fem,H )3 x Vds

Vbh= (Cfm )3 x Vds

Where

Vbh = Black Hole Ball volume

Vds = dead star volume

rB = Boson Radius = 2,2 × 10−18 m

rh = Bohr atomic radius = 5,3 x 10-11 m

Fem = electromagnetic force = 1,544295109E-50 kg m2

Fem,H = Higgs boson mass electromagnetic force =7,167935174E-52 kg m2

Cfm = 8,94 x 10-7 (Firman Constanta)**2) The Firman Formula to calculate the Volume Development of a Black Hole Ball that has**

sucked Dark Matter into the Volume of a New Star

Vns = (rB/rh x Fem /Fem,H )-3 x Vfbh – Vpp

Vns = (Cfm)-3 x Vfbh – Vpp

Where

Vns = the volume of new stars formed

Vfbh = The Final Volume of the Black Hole Ball after swallowing a lot of dark matter, and

other matter sucked in by the Black Hole Ball

Vpp = Planetary volume of a newly formed planet

rB = Boson Radius = 2,2 × 10−18 m

rh = Bohr atomic radius = 5,3 x 10-11 m

Fem = electromagnetic force = 1,544295109E-50 kg m2

Fem,H = Higgs boson mass electromagnetic force =7,167935174E-52 kg m2

Cfm = 8,94 x 10-7 (Firman Constanta)**C. Higgs Boson Change Mechanism**

18). Location and Analysis of the Cfm (Firman Constant) in Supermassive Black Hole Ball

in the Center of the Galaxy

a) At the center of the Milky Way Galaxy is a supermassive black hole ball

b) The following data is based on calculations with the Cfm parameter ( Firman Constants)

c) The Gravitational Power of a Supermassive Black Hole Ball: 2 x 1011 x The gravitational power

of the sun

d) The diameter of a Super Massive Black Hole Ball is:

(X/1240)3 = 2.1011 . where 1240 meters is the equivalent solar Diagonal for its Black Hole Ball

X = 5848 x 1240 meter = 7.251.520 meter

X = 7.251 km (the size of the planet Mars)

e) The Supermassive Black Hole Ball has a diameter of 7.251 km (the size of the planet Mars)

with the power of gravity = 2×1011 solar gravity.

Supermassive Black Hole Ball Surface Gravityv

= Gravitational Surface of a Ballho Black Hole Ball from a sun-sized star x 5848

= 3,132 x 107 g x 5848

f) Supermassive Black Hole Ball Surface Gravityv = 1,832 x 1011 g

g) This supermassive Black Hole Ball is what houses all the stars (2.1011 Stars) orbiting the center

of the Milky Way for billions of years,

h) The star will remain in its orbital position because there is a balance of the attraction force of

the supermassive Black Hole Ball and the centrifugal force due to the star orbiting.

i) Without a supermassive black hole Ball at the center of the galaxy, stars would collide with

each other.

j) All galaxies have a supermassive black hole ball at their core which will hold the stars in the

galaxy always in their orbit

k) The size of each galaxy’s supermassive black hole ball varies depending on the stars

surrounding it

l) Supermassive Black Hole Balls will not explode like Black Hole Balls that originate from dead

stars, because the structure of Supermassive Black Hole Balls is composed of only Higgs Boson

Elementary Particles which will not form Bohr atoms. With a surface gravity of 1,832 x 1011 g,

elementary particles other than the Higgs Boson will not function, and no Bohr Atom will be

formed.

m) Supermassive black hole ball are invisible to telescopes because all matter, including light, is

drawn into them. There is no material that can escape gravity of 1,832 x 1011 g.

n) With a surface gravity of 1,832 x 1011 g all matter sucked into the Supermassive Black Hole

Ball will decompose into Elementary particles

o) The closer the star is to the Supermassive Black Hole Ball, the faster its orbit will be to

compensate for the attraction force of the larger supermassive Black Hole Ball.

p) All objects in the galaxy must orbit so as not to be attracted to the Supermassive Black Hole

Ball.

q) Humans have 3 rotational movements, firstly rotating following the Earth’s rotation, secondly

humans and the earth orbit the sun to resist the gravitational force of the sun, thirdly humans

and the sun orbit the center of the galaxy to resist the traction of the Supermassive Black Hole

Ball at the center of the Galaxy.

- Research Methods:

1). Literature Studies

2). Derivation of the Higgs Boson Formula

3). Calculation of the Higgs Boson constant

4). Data Analysis from Higgs Boson Lab Testing

5). Formulate for Cfm

6). Compute the Black Hole Ball Mechanism

7). Calculate New Star Mechanism

8). Diagrams and calculation data

9). Analysis for Supermassive Black Hole Ball

- Conclusions and Recommendations:

1) Conclusions from research results.

a) Star regeneration can occur when the Higgs Boson decays from the atom.

b) The volume of the dead star decreases to become a black hole ball of (Cfm)3

the gravitational field is the same, but because the volume decreases, the

gravitational strength of the surface increases to (Cfm)-3, so it attracts

everything, including light.

c) With the gravitational strength of the surface surface increasing by (Cfm)-3

from the original gravity, the Black Hole Ball attracts Dark Matter more

quickly, and increases the mass of the Black Hole Ball more quickly, and the

Core Temperature of the Black Hole Ball continues to increase

d) At a core temperature of 10 to the power of 32 degrees Kelvin, the Black Hole

Ball will explode ejecting all the elementary particles,

e) Elementary particles will form atoms and molecules

f) Molecular matter will form dense matter and form new stars and planets with

a volume of (Cfm)-3 times the volume of the black hole ball that has swallowed

dark matter

g) The New Star has the same mass as the previous Dead Star plus the dark

matter swallowed by the Black Hole Ball

h) Cfm = 8,94 x 10-7 (Firman Constanta)

2) General implications of the research

This research reveals some of the secrets of Black Hole Balls and supermassive

Black Hole Balls at the center of galaxies.

3). Suggestions for further research

A radio telescope is needed to observe the Black Hole Ball, observations not

directly at the Black Hole Ball but through the effects of its gravity and the echoes

of light swallowed, and the behavior of objects approaching the Black Hole Ball.

- Bibliography:

1) The Higgs Boson, CERN Accelerating Science

2) What Is The Higgs Boson, Space.Com

3) Higgs Boson, Physics, Britannica Encyclopedia

4) The Higgs Boson, A Landmark Discovery, Atlas Experiment

5) High Precision Calculation of the Higggs Boson Mass, Edilson Reyes & Raffaele

Fazio, Particles , Journals, MDPI

6) A Derivation of the Higgs Fields and the Mass of the Higgs Boson, Randy

Sorokowski, Article ##.0v1.2021-01-26

7) Nobel Prize- Why Particles Have Mass, Michael Schirber, APS Advancing Physics

- New Parameters From Paper calculations:

1). Cfm = 8,94 x 10-7 (Firman Constanta)

2). Cfm = rB/rh x Fem / Fem,H

✓ rB = Boson Radius = 2,2 × 10−18 m

✓ rh = Bohr atomic radius = 5,3 x 10-11 m

✓ Fem = electromagnetic force = 1,544295109E-50 kg m2

✓ Fem,H = Higgs boson mass electromagnetic force =7,167935174E-52 kg m2

3). The Ball diameter of a black hole from a former star the size of the Sun is 1240 meters.

4). Black Hole Ball Surface Gravity: Gbh = 3,132 x 107 g, g is the gravity on earth, at a

temperature of 10 to the power of 32 degrees Kelvin, the Black Hole Ball will explode to

form a cloud of atomic matter, which then settles into a new star ball.

5). The Supermassive Black Hole Ball at the center of the Milky Way galaxy has a diameter of

7,251 km (the size of the planet Mars)

6). Super Massive Black Hole Ball Surface Gravity = 1,832 x 1011 g, all matter breaks down into

elementary particles, with gravity 5848 times the gravity of a former star Black Hole Ball,

Supermassive Black Hole Balls cannot explode into clouds of atoms, because extreme

gravity traps elementary particles and cannot form atoms.

7). The Gravity Surge formula is:

Black Hole Ball Surface Gravity:

Gbh = (Cfm)-1 x Gs

Gbh = (8,94 x 10-7)-1 x (28 g)

Gbh = 3,132 x 107 g

Gbh = 3,072 x 108 m/s2

Where:

Gbh = Gravity on the surface of a Black Hole Ball

Gs = Gravity on the surface of the Sun

g = gravity on the earth’s surface (9,807 m/s2)

8). The formula for Gravity Collapse is:

Gns ≈ (Cfm)1 x Gbh

Gns ≈ (8,94 x 10-7)1 x 3,132 x 107 g

Gns ≈ 28 g

Gns is bigger than Gs because there is additional mass from dark matter

Where

Gns = The surface gravity of a new star > 28 g

Gbh = The gravitational surface of a black hole ball that has additional mass from dark

matter

Gbh > 3,132 x 107 g